Psycho-Spiritual Integration: A Viable Pathway Towards Human Wholeness (And Holism)

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By Rev. Fr. George EHUSANI
Executive Director, Lux Terra Leadership Foundation 

INTRODUCTIION

As the first presentation in this very important conference on psychological counselling in the Church in Africa, I was asked to speak on “the Holistic Nature of the Human Person.” Reflecting on this topic, I wondered:

  1. Whether human nature can be taken as “given.”
  2. What measure of “wholeness,” “holism,” “completeness” or “fulfilment” is actually possible for us human beings in this world, alienated as the majority of us often are from both the Source and the goal of our being.

From the age-old perspectives of not only the Judeo-Christian religion, but also the mystical traditions of Buddhism, Hinduism and Sufi Islam, the human person does not appear to have an established “nature” (as a given) from birth or from the beginning. Instead, the real state of the human being is processual. We are either climbing or descending, or we are sometimes stuck and grounded where we find ourselves. Where we find ourselves is however not arbitrary. We do have a choice and a responsibility in the process. As individuals and as societies or cultural entities, we decide the quality of humanity we want by the choices we make.

The human species appears to me to be designed for nearly limitless possibilities of growth and perfection. If we continue to hunger for this nearly limitless possibility (for which we were designed), then the Almighty designer is there to bring us to fulfilment, wholeness and holism. My starting point therefore is that human nature is evolutionary. In the best case scenario, we are constantly in a process of becoming, and are required to constantly submit ourselves to the processes of ongoing transformation, maturation, enlightenment and illumination, towards the much desired wholeness and holism that is at the end of the day not attainable in this world, but only achievable in God our Creator.

The celebrated mystics of our Christian faith – from St. Augustine to St. Francis of Assisi, and from St. Bonaventure to Julian of Norwich; from Meister Eckhart to St. Catherine of Sienna, and from St. Theresa of Avila to St. John of the Cross; and yes, from St. Ignatius of Loyola to Brother Lawrence – all these mystics seem to agree on a “processual” rather than a “static” notion of the human person and his or her enterprise in this world. The works of 20th Century Jesuit Palaeontologist, Teilhard de Chardin are a classic presentation of this non-static but ongoing evolutionary process of maturation of not only the human species, but all of creation, towards what he calls the “Omega Point.” Contemporary Christian thinkers who subscribe to this processual or evolutionary notion of the human person include Cynthia Bourgeault, Thomas Keating, Gerard May, and David Benner; all of whom are widely recognised as experts in the convergence of Psychology and Contemplative spirituality.

From the perspective of all these thinkers (spanning over a period of nearly 2000 years), human life has a goal or an end result that is not to be realised in this world. Whereas wholeness and holism signify completeness and fulfilment, process on the other hand points to an ongoing phenomenon. On account of not only the rich mystical traditions of Christianity and other world religions, but also by virtue of my own experience through life of the widespread existential vacuum (which Viktor Frankl identifies as resulting from a frustrated will to meaning), I am now convinced that we humans cannot and will not be whole, until we end up in Him who created us; or as St. Augustine so powerfully puts it, “the Lord has created us for himself, and our hearts are restless, until they rest in him.” Augustine’s classic poem, Late have I love You expresses this desperate desire for God in the most with a constellation of powerful images as follows:

Late have I loved you, beauty so old and so new: late have I loved you. And see, you were within and I was in the external world and sought you there, and in my unlovely state I plunged into those lovely created things which you made. You were with me, and I was not with you. The lovely things kept me far from you, though if they did not have their existence in you, they had no existence at all. You called and cried out loud and shattered my deafness. You were radiant and resplendent, you put to flight my blindness. You were fragrant, and I drew in my breath and now pant after you. I tasted you, and I feel but hunger and thirst for you. You touched me, and I am set on fire to attain the peace which is yours.

The Psalmist expresses this existential frustration – this insatiable thirst for wholeness and holism, which is not achievable by any other means except in God the creator. He says in Psalm 42: As the deer yearns for running streams, so my soul is yearning, for you my God. My soul thirsts for God, the living God. When shall I enter, and see the face of God. And in Psalm 63 he says: O God, you are my God, I seek you, my soul thirsts for you; my flesh pines for you, as in a dry and weary land where there is no water.

It is precisely this existential frustration with everything the world has to offer – this insatiable thirst for meaning, that eventually leads the genuine seeker to God, and to ultimate wholeness. Our Catholic faith presents to us many examples in the last 100 years of intellectual giants that were also passionate seekers of ultimate truth, and who eventually found their way to Christianity, and some even to the contemplative life (of Christian Mysticism). They include Thomas Merton, Edith Stein, C.S. Lewis, G.K. Chesterton, Dorothy Day, Malcolm Muggeridge, and even Oscar Wilde.

Many human beings however cannot endure the pains and agonies of endlessly pushing for the limitless growth and perfection for which we were designed and which we are capable of. So they often choose to ground themselves where they are. Perhaps that point of convenience where they have grounded themselves – that point which is often plagued with restlessness, alienation and fragmentation, or beset with psycho-emotional and spiritual disorders, addictions and sundry pathologies – that point at which they are grounded, now more or less becomes their nature. In this way the human being plays an active part in the making of his or her nature. If on the other hand we accept and embrace the human reality as an ongoing process of maturation, then we have a chance of achieving our ultimate potential, but such is not attainable in this world. In other words, true wholeness, completeness, or holism is not something we achieve in this world, try as we may.

The many laudable achievements of human beings since the industrial revolution in Europe, and especially the scientific and technological revolution which humanity has witnessed in the last two hundred years, came with lofty promises of wholeness and fulfilment, but they have turned out to be false promises, as these developments have ended up leaving us utterly frustrated, such that today we have many more incidents of psychopathology – depression, neurosis, psychosis, multiple addictions, suicide ideation and suicides, than perhaps previous generations that we considered less educationally advanced and technologically developed. Even as we gather to reflect on pathways to more effective psychological counselling in our Church, perhaps I should begin with what may be considered a disclaimer, namely, that the human being is on an endless journey. We never really finish visiting all the patches of our broken selves or putting together the pieces of our fragmented personality, until we meet with Him who is our Creator, and find in His presence the wholeness that we so earnestly desire. It is in His presence that our profound longings and deep-seated desires will find fulfilment, and all our conflicting impulses and destructive addictions will vanish.

The essential problem with humanity is that we appear to have been designed for two competing goals that are often in opposite polarities, namely: this-worldly (cultural) goals and transcendental (heavenly) goals. Because we begin life in a very delicate form, we cannot survive unless we succumb to the pressure of society and our culture to belong. So we hunger for approval and acceptance. By the time we become adults, we are already fully entrenched in the pursuit of this-worldly goals, and acquired a taste for all that our society and culture tell us are the channels to wholesomeness, fulfilment and completeness; including wealth and power, pleasure and comfort, high status and prestige, etc. The processes of becoming human and fitting into our culture often tend to make us addicts. We become addicted to acceptance and recognition, and to power and prestige among others.

Yet deep down in our being, even as we climb the ladder of success in the world by our society’s parameters, we often experience an emptiness or void which the goodies of the world cannot seem to satisfy. Yes, even as we get towards at the peak of our earthly pursuits, we begin to get disillusioned with all that the world can offer. We get to the point of realisation that we are not one unified personality; that we are not naturally united; that like the Gerasene Demoniac of Luke 8:26-37 we are a Legion, a multitude; fragmented and divided within ourselves, and pulled in opposite directions at the same time. It is at this point (of existential vacuum or the frustrated will to meaning, as Frankl calls it), that we are ready to explore other channels for ultimate fulfilment. It is at this point, when the hunger and thirst to become a single entity is crucial, that the real search begins, and spirituality comes to the rescue.

Human wholeness or holism is thus not a given. It is not automatic. It is not something that happens without our efforts. Holism often happens after we come to the point of realisation that our deepest aspirations as human beings cannot be met with this-worldly parameters of success, and we resolve to do something about it. Holism often happens when we have experienced the emptiness, the vanity and the utter illusion in our earth-bound goals, and when we decide to engage in an inward journey (of growth), in search of something more. The quest for holism or human wholeness, is one of the greatest sources of ennoblement in human experience, and it is ultimately a spiritual quest. It is the deep inner search for paradise which, though lost, is the true object of our most profound longing.

Thus, the integrity of the personality (in the words of Anthony Storr) cannot happen, unless the goal is moved away from this material world to where it really belongs. It is only then that we can find a solution to the dilemma of human fragmentation, which is the fundamental dis-ease whose symptoms are among the psycho-spiritual disorders which therapists are daily confronted with in their clinics. It is only then that the pieces begin to fit together. Yet we come to realise that they never completely come together in this world. This in my opinion is the position of such pioneering protagonists of psycho-spiritual integration as Viktor Frankl, Roberto Assagioli, Thomas Keating, Cynthia Bourgeault, Ken Wilber, Amedeo Cencini, Gerard May, Scott Peck, David Benner, Richard Rohr, and Paul Fehrenbach, among a growing number of Christian scholars with unassailable credentials in the psychological sciences, who are today actively promoting the convergence of the psychological sciences and spirituality, as a viable pathway towards human growth and wholeness.

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENTERPRISE:

From “the Care of the Soul,” through “the Science of the Mind”

to “the Science of the Mind and Human Behaviour”

The modern word “psychology” derives from two Greek words which when combined means “the study of the psyche.” And what did the ancient scholars understand by “the psyche?” Research shows that for thousands of years, when scholars of both the Greeco-Roman and the Arab as well as the Asian traditions spoke or wrote of the psyche, they meant ‘the soul,’ ‘the spirit’ or ‘the breath’ of life. It is to be noted that the ancient scholars did not make any sharp distinction or differentiation between religion and spirituality on the one hand, and philosophy, the humanities, and the natural sciences on the other. They were often one huge body of knowledge, and scholars traversed seamlessly between these territories. We see this from the writings of Socrates, Aristotle and Plato, to those of Thomas Aquinas, Don Scotus, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, and Thomas Hobbes.

Ali Hameed Almaas, initiator of the Diamond Approach (to Spiritual Work and Psychotherapy), observes that in ancient times psychology was part of both religion and philosophy. In the Christian religion, psychology was the knowledge of the soul, and the study of the techniques for developing, healing and purifying the soul. There was a similar understanding of psychology as “soul care” or “work with the soul” in Sufi Islam, in Kabbala Judaism, in ancient Buddhism as well as Hinduism. As an integral part of philosophy, psychology was simply the study of the soul. It was not seriously differentiated, nor was it understood to be independent and altogether separate from religion and philosophy. Indeed, ancient scholars understood that psychology had an inherent connection with spirituality, because psychology deals with the mind and the soul, and they understood that the ground of mind and soul is ultimately spiritual. Many of them did not see how the experience of the human soul and its wellbeing could be neatly divided into a psychological part and a spiritual part, to be handled, one independent of the other. (See A. H. Almaas, Spiritual Work and Psychotherapy, https://www.diamondapproach.org).

As it evolved through the middle ages however, psychology came to be recognised as an independent discipline, and it was defined as “the science of the soul.” In our own day psychology is defined as the science of the mind and human behaviour. The soul no longer features in the definition at all. This signifies a radical denunciation and denial – or is it a rejection – by psychologists, of the historical roots of their enterprise. Many modern psychologists now consider themselves as operating strictly within the confines of a purely naturalistic or empirical system, even when they are daily engaged with the complex dynamics of a creature whose existence straddles between the body, the mind, the soul, and the spirit; even when the profound human needs which many psychologists are called upon to meet do definitely transcend the naturalistic frame of reference; and yes, even when a number of the disorders which psychotherapy sets out to treat, have much more to do with religion and spirituality than with medical science as such.

Perhaps the ultimate action to dissociate or discountenance religion and spirituality from the psychological enterprise was championed by Sigmund Freud, who is often described as the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud had what some commentators have described a psychopathological bias against religion and spirituality. Over the course of his writing career, Freud described the religious and spiritual enterprise variously as a psychosis, as an infantile neurosis, as a mass delusion, as a manifestation of the Oedipus complex, and as a blissful hallucinatory confusion. (See David Benner, Psychotherapy and the Spiritual Quest, 1988, page 48). No wonder that many contemporary disciples of Freud’s school of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy cannot see how we could ever think of integrating psychology and spirituality in diagnosing and treating disorders of the mind, especially those among them who have not taken the time to research the religious and spiritual origins and the subsequent historical evolution of what we know as today’s psychological sciences.

The contemporary dissonance or discord between psychology and spirituality did not happen overnight. Perhaps the excesses of religious leader in the Middle Ages – including the very notorious subjection of scholars with controversial views to the Roman Inquisition, can be held responsible in part for what became a rather acrimonious relationship between spirituality and the scientific enterprise. Religious leaders were often guilty of spiritual reductionism, an unfortunate stance that culminated in the inglorious sanctioning of the 16th Century Philosopher, Mathematician, Physicist and Astronomer, who invented the Telescope, the Compass and the Thermometer, Galileo Galilei. Religious people who were schooled in metaphysics and mysticism often refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of other forms of knowing, beyond the mystical, the “mythic,” and the intuitive. This was why scientific discoveries that appeared to contradict the literal interpretation of some elements of divine revelation as contained in the Scriptures or taught by the Church, were considered heretical, and the scholars were forced to either recant or be cruelly sanctioned. The reaction of the post-Galileo era scientists to the spiritual reductionism of religious people, appears to have been the opposite extreme, which came to be known as empirical reductionism. Many post-Renaissance and Post-Enlightenment psychologists can be rightly described as scientific positivists or empirical reductionists, who are determined to reject any forms of knowing that do not meet the requirements or fit into the narrow confines of their scientific method, which limits itself to objective, empirical, replicable truths only.

Reductionistic explanations of the human phenomenon and of reality in general (from both extreme polarities described above), are most undesirable, as they will ultimately not serve humanity and the universe any good whatsoever. Instead they are bound to lead to devastating consequences for both the human species and the universe in general. Reality is multi-faceted, and the age-old human search for that which is Good, that which is Beautiful and that which is True, will inevitably see the human intellect traversing the many complex dimensions of reality. In his excellent work on The Marriage of Sense and Soul, Ken Wilber highlights the research done by Huston Smith, which reveals that virtually all of the world’s great wisdom traditions subscribed to a belief in the Great Chain of Being (or the Great Nest of Being). This forms the core of all religious worldviews, including the Christian worldview. The researcher asserts that until modern times, it was a nearly universal view that reality is a rich tapestry of interwoven levels, reaching from matter to body to mind to soul to spirit. By this ancient viewpoint, a higher level of reality transcends and includes the lower level. So, Spirit transcends but includes soul, which transcends but includes mind, which transcends but includes the vital body, which transcends but includes matter. This is why the Great Nest of Being is often portrayed as a series of concentric spheres or circles. (See Wilber, 1998, page 6-7).

Post-Enlightenment Western civilisation, driven by scientific materialism, fascinated by an all too objectivistic and positivistic system of knowledge, with its penchant for differentiation, atomisation and fragmentation, simply discountenanced the Great Nest of Being, disregarding what was generally accepted as a holistic and interwoven system of reality, and discarding entirely the interior dimensions of the human phenomenon and the non-empirical spheres of the universe itself. In this way, Ken Wilber observes that modern Western civilisation has become “the first and only major civilisation in the history of mankind to be without the Great Nest of Being.” (See Wilber, 1998, page 80).

We are now confronted with the challenge of ministering to our generation a holistic psychological or psychotherapeutic care that takes into cognisance the complexity of the human phenomenon as body, mind, soul and spirit at one and the same time – with each one of these dimensions able to influence and impact the others for good or for ill. And even though organised religion appears to be failing or losing widespread appeal in the West, there is also a noticeable failure of professional psychologists who see themselves as pure empirical scientists, to replace religious practitioners in answering the deeper questions that trouble the human soul, since, as we observed earlier, the human needs that send clients to psychologists and psychotherapists often transcend the naturalistic frame of reference into which the modern psychologists and psychotherapists have confined themselves. This indeed is the existential dilemma of the modern practitioner, who finds himself or herself locked within the narrow confines of the scientific method, perceiving reality only with the “eye of the flesh,” and “the eye of the mind,” while denying the existence and legitimacy of that sphere of reality which can be perceived only by “the eye of contemplation,” “the eye of metaphysics,” or “the eye of the mystic.”

Ancient scholars however had no such limitations. From Plato to Aristotle, and from Augustine to Bonaventure, ancient scholars studied, analysed and treated the human person as one composite entity. Their form of epistemology was comprehensive, not “monological” or compartmentalised. The areas of knowledge we know today as psychological sciences were an integral part of philosophy and theology. And the ancient form of clinical psychological practice and psychotherapy was known as “soul care,” – an enterprise that belonged squarely to religion and spirituality, as practiced not only by Christians, but also by Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and adherents of the African traditional religions.

RE-INTEGRATING PSYCHOLOGY AND SPIRITUALITY—

An Imperative for Comprehensive Soul Care

The Christian religion teaches that we relate to God in the same manner we relate to our fellow human beings – with our bodies, our minds, our souls and our spirits. We relate to God with our emotions and our impulses, in both our conscious and unconscious states. In this way, the psychological mechanisms that mediate our relationship with our human neighbours are also at play in our relationship with God. (See Benner, Psychotherapy and the Spiritual Quest, 1988, page 43). And when Jesus says in John 10:10 that “I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full,” we understand that he meant to bring us a comprehensive redemption or a restoration in the entirety of our being, at the level of our body, mind, soul and spirit. Yes, Christian salvation is designed to restore the total personality, and not just some parts of it. This is the reason why “soul care,” by whatever other name it is called today, remains a constitutive dimension of the Christian mission of shepherding the flock, and showing the path to human wholeness development and fulfilment.

The separations and differentiations in scholarship that followed the Renaissance and Enlightenment period in the West, have no doubt served to facilitate or enhance professionalism in psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, clinical psychology, and the numerous sub-disciplines in psychology that have emerged in our day. Yet, professionals who are advocates of psycho-spiritual dualism will often have a hard time making differential diagnosis of psychological and spiritual problems in a good number of their clients who are religiously inclined, since their supernatural destiny is constantly involved in their natural life, just as the choices they make in their natural life are understood to impact on their supernatural destiny.

CONCLUSION

The foregoing is the reason why we at the Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation, with the active support of Missio Aachen, are championing the course of re-integrating the study of Psychotherapy and Christian Spirituality, as one unified discipline, for Christian professionals who will help to foster wholesome personality integration and ongoing psycho-spiritual self-awareness and growth among clerical and non-clerical agents of the Gospel, as well as facilitate the healing (and wellness) of an increasing number of our Christian faithful who find themselves in difficult life situations of an emotional and psychological nature. Many religious persons have in the past ended up with professional psychotherapists who are neither grounded in, nor share in the theological and spiritual traditions of the sufferer, and so could not offer holistic support for the required healing process. Others have ended up with deeply spiritual counsellors, who however are not conversant with such modern skills and approaches in psychotherapy that, when combined with the tools of our spiritual tradition, would have more easily facilitated healing for the sufferer.

Therefore drawing from the best of the Christian spiritual – and especially contemplative tradition, and using up-to-date psychotherapeutic tools, approaches and methodologies for healing troubled minds, and taking into cognizance our peculiar African historical, religious and sociological context, the Psycho-Spiritual Institute, located at the Marist International University College here in Nairobi, is offering high quality professional training in an environment of faith and Christian devotion, for those who wish to function as Psycho-Spiritual Therapists and Counsellors in our various ecclesiastical jurisdictions and institutions across English-speaking Africa. Above all, our two-year Master’s degree programme and our one-year Sabbatical programme (at thePSI) place utmost premium on the personal awareness and growth, as well as wholesome psycho-spiritual integration and transformation of the trainee counsellors themselves.

I must mention here that we have also been experimenting on the use of this integrated psycho-spiritual approach for our short training programmes in Psycho-Trauma Healing Skills, which take place regularly at the Lux Terra Leadership Foundation in Abuja, Nigeria. The immediate outcome of those courses – including the testimonies we have been receiving from course participants that often include Psychologists, Medical Doctors, Social Workers, as well as Islamic and Christian clerics, and the results of their post-training counselling engagements, do indicate that the integrated psycho-spiritual approach to soul care (rather than the way of psychological and spiritual dualism), is the most viable path towards effective care of souls in the contemporary African environment.

Now let me conclude my presentation with a few quotations attributed to world renowned and award-winning scientists of the post-Enlightenment period, who recognized the legitimate place of spirituality in the human search for the Good, the Beautiful and the True, and whose thoughts align with our desire for psycho-spiritual integration:

  1. Albert Einstein (Theoretical Physicist of the Relativity fame)

“The more I study science, the more I believe in God.”

“The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious; it is the source of all true art and science.”

“My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble mind.”

“Everyone who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that a spirit is manifest in the laws of the Universe – a spirit vastly superior to that of man, and one in the face of which we with our modest powers must feel humble.”

“The harmony of natural law reveals an Intelligence of such superiority that compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection.”

“The finest emotion of which we are capable is the mystic emotion. Herein lies the germ of all art and all true science. Anyone to whom this feeling is alien, who is no longer capable of wonderment and lives in a state of fear is a dead man. To know that what is impenetrable for us really exists and manifests itself as the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty, whose gross forms alone are intelligible to our poor faculties – this knowledge, this feeling … that is the core of the true religious sentiment. In this sense, and in this sense alone, I rank myself among profoundly religious men.”

“Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.”

  1. Isaac Newton (Mathematician, Physicist and Astronomer)

“He who thinks half-heartedly will not believe in God; but he who really thinks has to believe in God.”

“The most beautiful system of the sun, planets and comets, could only proceed from the Counsel and Dominion of and Intelligent and Powerful Being.”

“We account the scriptures of God to be the most sublime philosophy. I find more sure marks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history whatsoever.”

  1. Teilhard de Chardin (Jesuit Priest, Geologist and Paleontologist)

“We are not human beings having a spiritual experience; we are spiritual beings having a human experience.”

“Driven by the forces of love, the fragments of the world seek each other so that the world may come to being.”

“Science, philosophy and religion are bound to converge as they draw nearer to the whole.”

“From a purely positivist point of view, man is the most mysterious and disconcerting of all objects met with by science.”

  1. Carl Sagan (Astrophysicist and Astrobiologist)

“Science is not only compatible with spirituality; it is a profound source of spirituality. When we recognize our place in an immensity of light-years and in the passage of ages, when we grasp the intricacy, beauty, and subtlety of life, then that soaring feeling, that sense of elation and humility combined, is surely spiritual. So are our emotions in the presence of great art or music or literature, or acts of exemplary selfless courage such as those of Mohandas Gandhi or Martin Luther King, Jr. the notion that science and spirituality are somehow mutually exclusive does a disservice to both.”

  1. Stanislav Grof (Psychiatrist and founder of Transpersonal Psychology)

“Spiritual intelligence is the capacity to conduct our life in such a way that it reflects deep philosophical and metaphysical understanding of reality and of ourselves, through personal experience during systematic spiritual pursuit.”

“The materialistic paradigm of Western science is a major obstacle for any objective evaluation of the data describing the events occurring at the time of death.”

  1. Louis Pasteur (Microbiologist and Chemist)

“A bit of science distances one from God. But much science nears one to Him…The More I study nature, the more I stand amazed at the work of the Creator. Science brings men nearer to God”.

REFERENCES

  1. H. Almaas, “Spiritual Work and Psychotherapy,”

Anthony Storr, The Integrity of the Personality, Ballantine Books, New York, 1988

Augustine, The Confessions of… Baker Book House, Michigan, 2005

David Benner, Spirituality and the Spiritual Quest, Baker Book House, Michigan, 1988

David Benner, Soulful Spirituality: Becoming Fully Alive & Deeply Human, Brazos Press, Michigan, 2011

David Benner, Spirituality and the Awakening Self, Brazos Press, Michigan, 2012

David Richo, How to Be An Adult: A Handbook on Psychological and Spiritual Integration, Paulist Press, New York, 1991

Gerard May, ADDICTION & GRACE: Love and Spirituality in the Healing of Addictions,

HapperCollins, New York, 1988

Ken Wilber, THE MARRIAGE OF SENSE AND SOUL: Integrating Science and Religion, Broadway Books, New York, 1999

Paul K. Fehrenbach, SOUL and SELF: Parallels between Spiritual and Psychological Growth, Paulist Press, New York, 2006.

Peter Scazzero, Emotionally Healthy Spirituality: It’s Impossible to be Spiritually Mature While Remaining emotionally Immature, Zondervan Press, New York, 2014.

Robert Waldron, The Wounded Heart of Thomas Merton, Paulist Press, New York, 2011

Teilhard de Chardin, Christianity and Evolution, A Harvest Book, New York, 2002

Viktor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, Beacon Press, Boston, 2006.

Viktor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Ultimate Meaning, Rider Press, London, 2011

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